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• MATHEMATICS AND THE WORLD AROUND US
REAL-LIFE, REAL-WORLD, CONTEX-BASED, APPLIED MATHEMATICS

Spirometry Curve

I. Parameteres Signalizing Respiratory Problems

One of the main parameters, which indicates respiratory problems, is a (FORCED) VITAL CAPACITY (FVC).

FVC represents the volume of air maximally fiercely breathed out after the deep inhalation.

The healthy, non-smoker human's FVC is defined by TABLES.

As a height unit, INCH is used in a table. Inches are usually used in an anglophone districts, most common in the USA and the United Kingdom (1 inch = 2.54 cm).

Man's Forced Vital Capacity Predicted Values
AGE (years)
HEIGHT (inches) 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65
60 2.97 2.91 2.85 2.79 2.74 2.68 2.62 2.56
60.5 3.05 2.99 2.93 2.88 2.82 2.76 2.70 2.64
61 3.13 3.08 3.02 2.96 2.90 2.84 2.79 2.73
61.5 3.22 3.16 3.10 3.04 2.98 2.93 2.87 2.81
62 3.30 3.24 3.18 3.12 3.07 3.01 2.95 2.89
62.5 3.38 3.32 3.26 3.21 3.15 3.09 3.03 2.97
63 3.46 3.41 3.35 3.29 3.23 3.17 3.12 3.06
63.5 3.55 3.49 3.43 3.37 3.31 3.26 3.20 3.14
64 3.63 3.57 3.51 3.45 3.40 3.34 3.28 3.22
64.5 3.71 3.65 3.59 3.54 3.48 3.42 3.36 3.30
65 3.79 3.74 3.68 3.62 3.56 3.50 3.45 3.39
65.5 3.88 3.82 3.76 3.70 3.64 3.59 3.53 3.47
66 3.96 3.90 3.84 3.78 3.73 3.67 3.61 3.55
66.5 4.04 3.98 3.93 3.87 3.81 3.75 3.69 3.64
67 4.12 4.07 4.01 3.95 3.89 3.83 3.78 3.72
67.5 4.21 4.15 4.09 4.03 3.97 3.92 3.86 3.80
68 4.29 4.23 4.17 4.11 4.06 4.00 3.94 3.88
68.5 4.37 4.31 4.26 4.20 4.14 4.08 4.02 3.97
69 4.45 4.40 4.34 4.28 4.22 4.16 4.11 4.05
69.5 4.54 4.48 4.42 4.36 4.30 4.25 4.19 4.13
70 4.62 4.56 4.50 4.45 4.39 4.33 4.27 4.21
70.5 4.70 4.64 4.59 4.53 4.47 4.41 4.35 4.30
71 4.78 4.73 4.67 4.61 4.55 4.49 4.44 4.38
71.5 4.87 4.81 4.75 4.69 4.63 4.58 4.52 4.46
72 4.95 4.89 4.83 4.78 4.72 4.66 4.60 4.54
72.5 5.03 4.97 4.92 4.86 4.80 4.74 4.68 4.63
73 5.11 5.06 5.00 4.94 4.88 4.82 4.77 4.71
73.5 5.20 5.14 5.08 5.02 4.96 4.91 4.85 4.79
74 5.28 5.22 5.16 5.11 5.05 4.99 4.93 4.87
74.5 5.36 5.30 5.25 5.19 5.13 5.07 5.01 4.96
75 5.44 5.39 5.33 5.27 5.21 5.15 5.10 5.04
75.5 5.53 5.47 5.41 5.35 5.30 5.24 5.18 5.12
76 5.61 5.55 5.49 5.44 5.38 5.32 5.26 5.20
76.5 5.69 5.63 5.58 5.52 5.46 5.40 5.34 5.29
77 5.77 5.72 5.66 5.60 5.54 5.48 5.43 5.37
77.5 5.86 5.80 5.74 5.68 5.63 5.57 5.51 5.45
78 5.94 5.88 5.82 5.77 5.71 5.65 5.59 5.53
78.5 6.02 5.96 5.91 5.85 5.79 5.73 5.67 5.62
79 6.10 6.05 5.99 5.93 5.87 5.81 5.76 5.70
79.5 6.19 6.13 6.07 6.01 5.96 5.90 5.84 5.78
80 6.27 6.21 6.15 6.10 6.04 5.98 5.92 5.86
80.5 6.35 6.29 6.24 6.18 6.12 6.06 6.00 5.95
81 6.44 6.38 6.32 6.26 6.20 6.15 6.09 6.03
81.5 6.52 6.46 6.40 6.34 6.29 6.23 6.17 6.11
82 6.60 6.54 6.48 6.43 6.37 6.31 6.25 6.19
82.5 6.68 6.62 6.57 6.51 6.45 6.39 6.33 6.28
83 6.77 6.71 6.65 6.59 6.53 6.48 6.42 6.36
83.5 6.85 6.79 6.73 6.67 6.62 6.56 6.50 6.44
84 6.93 6.87 6.81 6.76 6.70 6.64 6.58 6.52
84.5 7.01 6.95 6.90 6.84 6.78 6.72 6.66 6.61
85 7.10 7.04 6.98 6.92 6.86 6.81 6.75 6.69

If the patient's FVC is different from the table - predicted value, it can signalize a disease.

Why do we need this information?

Our first task is to FIND PATIENT'S FORCED VITAL CAPACITY and to COMPARE IT with a table (predicted) value. If there is nearly no difference between these two values, we can expect, that our patient does not have any breathing problems.

A piece of history

There were many famous doctors studying human Vital Capacity during the last centuries.

One of the first was Galen, well-known famous Greek doctor (2th century).

Later, Giovannin Alfonso Borelli (1679) rapidly increased the measurement accuracy, using the patient's nose blocking.

John Hutchinson (1849) created the first fully functional spirometer (water spirometer). Later, based on 4000 measurements, found a linear dependence between the vital capacity and a human height.

The first patient

Our first patient is a MAN, 56 years old, 171 centimeters tall. The result of his spirometry assessment is in the right picture.

(The volume represented on a graph is an air volume, inhaled and exhaled into/out of the patient's lung.)

(Predicted FVC values are avilable HERE )

As a height unit, INCH is used in a table. Inches are usually used in an anglophone districts, most common in the USA and the United Kingdom (1 inch = 2.54 cm).

Man's Forced Vital Capacity Predicted Values
AGE (years)
HEIGHT (inches) 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65
60 2.97 2.91 2.85 2.79 2.74 2.68 2.62 2.56
60.5 3.05 2.99 2.93 2.88 2.82 2.76 2.70 2.64
61 3.13 3.08 3.02 2.96 2.90 2.84 2.79 2.73
61.5 3.22 3.16 3.10 3.04 2.98 2.93 2.87 2.81
62 3.30 3.24 3.18 3.12 3.07 3.01 2.95 2.89
62.5 3.38 3.32 3.26 3.21 3.15 3.09 3.03 2.97
63 3.46 3.41 3.35 3.29 3.23 3.17 3.12 3.06
63.5 3.55 3.49 3.43 3.37 3.31 3.26 3.20 3.14
64 3.63 3.57 3.51 3.45 3.40 3.34 3.28 3.22
64.5 3.71 3.65 3.59 3.54 3.48 3.42 3.36 3.30
65 3.79 3.74 3.68 3.62 3.56 3.50 3.45 3.39
65.5 3.88 3.82 3.76 3.70 3.64 3.59 3.53 3.47
66 3.96 3.90 3.84 3.78 3.73 3.67 3.61 3.55
66.5 4.04 3.98 3.93 3.87 3.81 3.75 3.69 3.64
67 4.12 4.07 4.01 3.95 3.89 3.83 3.78 3.72
67.5 4.21 4.15 4.09 4.03 3.97 3.92 3.86 3.80
68 4.29 4.23 4.17 4.11 4.06 4.00 3.94 3.88
68.5 4.37 4.31 4.26 4.20 4.14 4.08 4.02 3.97
69 4.45 4.40 4.34 4.28 4.22 4.16 4.11 4.05
69.5 4.54 4.48 4.42 4.36 4.30 4.25 4.19 4.13
70 4.62 4.56 4.50 4.45 4.39 4.33 4.27 4.21
70.5 4.70 4.64 4.59 4.53 4.47 4.41 4.35 4.30
71 4.78 4.73 4.67 4.61 4.55 4.49 4.44 4.38
71.5 4.87 4.81 4.75 4.69 4.63 4.58 4.52 4.46
72 4.95 4.89 4.83 4.78 4.72 4.66 4.60 4.54
72.5 5.03 4.97 4.92 4.86 4.80 4.74 4.68 4.63
73 5.11 5.06 5.00 4.94 4.88 4.82 4.77 4.71
73.5 5.20 5.14 5.08 5.02 4.96 4.91 4.85 4.79
74 5.28 5.22 5.16 5.11 5.05 4.99 4.93 4.87
74.5 5.36 5.30 5.25 5.19 5.13 5.07 5.01 4.96
75 5.44 5.39 5.33 5.27 5.21 5.15 5.10 5.04
75.5 5.53 5.47 5.41 5.35 5.30 5.24 5.18 5.12
76 5.61 5.55 5.49 5.44 5.38 5.32 5.26 5.20
76.5 5.69 5.63 5.58 5.52 5.46 5.40 5.34 5.29
77 5.77 5.72 5.66 5.60 5.54 5.48 5.43 5.37
77.5 5.86 5.80 5.74 5.68 5.63 5.57 5.51 5.45
78 5.94 5.88 5.82 5.77 5.71 5.65 5.59 5.53
78.5 6.02 5.96 5.91 5.85 5.79 5.73 5.67 5.62
79 6.10 6.05 5.99 5.93 5.87 5.81 5.76 5.70
79.5 6.19 6.13 6.07 6.01 5.96 5.90 5.84 5.78
80 6.27 6.21 6.15 6.10 6.04 5.98 5.92 5.86
80.5 6.35 6.29 6.24 6.18 6.12 6.06 6.00 5.95
81 6.44 6.38 6.32 6.26 6.20 6.15 6.09 6.03
81.5 6.52 6.46 6.40 6.34 6.29 6.23 6.17 6.11
82 6.60 6.54 6.48 6.43 6.37 6.31 6.25 6.19
82.5 6.68 6.62 6.57 6.51 6.45 6.39 6.33 6.28
83 6.77 6.71 6.65 6.59 6.53 6.48 6.42 6.36
83.5 6.85 6.79 6.73 6.67 6.62 6.56 6.50 6.44
84 6.93 6.87 6.81 6.76 6.70 6.64 6.58 6.52
84.5 7.01 6.95 6.90 6.84 6.78 6.72 6.66 6.61
85 7.10 7.04 6.98 6.92 6.86 6.81 6.75 6.69
• 01
Read again

Try to read the previous text again and find, the deffinition of the FORCED VITAL CAPACITY.

• 02
Use a helper

If you still need a help, use a HELPER. It is denoted by the same number as your problem (right menu - bulb picture :))

• 03
Controll your answer

It is every time a good idea to check your answer. You can use available answers (right menu - check mark picture :))

• 04
Continue or help your friends

When you checked your answer, you can pass for the next problem.
OR You can also help your friends by checking the questions in a forum.

II. Respiratory System Diseases

Solution of the Problem 1.2 showed us, that our patien's FVC (FORCED VITAL CAPACITY) is decreased/reduced.

But, what does it mean? What kind of a disease can our patient have?

To answer this question we need to know, what kind of pulmonary diseases exist. The list of existed pulmonary diseases and their description is available HERE.

Pulmonary diseases

Pulmonary diseases can be divided into three groups.

I. Restrictive lung diseases

(Restrictive pulmonary diseases are also known as restrictive ventilatory defects or interstitial lung diseases.)

What is happening in a patient's respiratory system?

The lung tissue is defected what causes decreased air volume stored in a lung.

How are the restrictive lung diseases demonstrated by the Spirometry assessment?
Restrictive lung diseases - Spirometry results
Parameter A comparison of a spirometry assessment and predicted values
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) FVC is reduced below 80% of a predicted value
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) FEV1 is reduced below 80% of a predicted value
FEV1/FVC ratio (FEV1%) FEV1/FVC ratio is normal (value = 1)
Peak expiratory flow (PEF) PEF is reduced or normal
Forced expiratory flow (FEF) FEF25, FEF50 and FEF75 values can be lightly reduced or extended, based on a FVC change
Flow-Volume Loop shape Concave in a volume axis direction

Note

The table does not contain PEAK INSPIRATORY FLOW (PIF) which represents the maximal air flow during the patient's inhalation. The reason is medical. The inspiration curve is less influenced by the lung defects as the expiratory curve. If the value of this parameter is reduced compared to the expected value, we usually have to find the cause outside of the lung (e.g. trachea cancer).

What are the causes of restrictive lung diseases?

The causes can be splited into the two main categories

1. Extrinsic (they are influencing the chest wall movement)

* Obesity

* Scoliosis

* Respiratory muscle defects

* ...

2. Intrinsic (they are influencing the lung elasticity)

* Partial surgery lung removal

* Sarcoidosis

* Pulmonary fibrosis

* ...

II. Obstructive lung diseases
What is happening in a patient's respiratory system?

Bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed what caueses the airway obstruction. The result of the obstruction is a reduction of a quickly exhaled air.

How are the restrictive lung diseases demonstrated by the Spirometry assessment?
Obstructive lung diseases - Spirometry results
Parameter A comparison of a spirometry assessment and predicted values
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) FVC is normal or nearly normal (lightly decreased)
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) FEV1 is reduced below 80% of a predicted value
FEV1/FVC ratio (FEV1%) FEV1/FVC ratio is reduced on a value 0.7 or less (max value = 1)
Peak expiratory flow (PEF) PEF is reduced below 80% of a predicted value. The reduction is increasing with the disease substantiality (ASTHMA - low reduction, COPD - height reduction).
Forced expiratory flow (FEF) FEF25, FEF50 and FEF75 are reduced below 50% of a predicted value. The reduction is increasing with the disease substantiality.
Flow-Volume Loop shape Convex in a volume axis direction
What are the causes of restrictive lung diseases?

* Asthma

* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Note

COPD is one of the most common pulmonary obstructive diseases, mostly caused by smoking. There are two COPD forms - chronical bronchitis and aerification. Patients suffering from COPD usually have both of these forms.

III. Restrictive and Obstructive lung diseases combination

The restrictive and obstructive disease combination can be caused by two different diseases where the first one is restrictive and the second one is obstructive.

Another option is, if the disease causes both - restrictive as well as obstructive pulmonary defects. The example of this kind of disease is a cystic fibrosis.

Pulmonary diseases

Pulmonary diseases can be divided into three groups.

I. Restrictive lung diseases

(Restrictive pulmonary diseases are also known as restrictive ventilatory defects or interstitial lung diseases.)

What is happening in a patient's respiratory system?

The lung tissue is defected what causes decreased air volume stored in a lung.

How are the restrictive lung diseases demonstrated by the Spirometry assessment?
Restrictive lung diseases - Spirometry results
Parameter A comparison of a spirometry assessment and predicted values
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) FVC is reduced below 80% of a predicted value
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) FEV1 is reduced below 80% of a predicted value
FEV1/FVC ratio (FEV1%) FEV1/FVC ratio is normal (value = 1)
Peak expiratory flow (PEF) PEF is reduced or normal
Forced expiratory flow (FEF) FEF25, FEF50 and FEF75 values can be lightly reduced or extended, based on a FVC change
Flow-Volume Loop shape Concave in a volume axis direction

Note

The table does not contain PEAK INSPIRATORY FLOW (PIF) which represents the maximal air flow during the patient's inhalation. The reason is medical. The inspiration curve is less influenced by the lung defects as the expiratory curve. If the value of this parameter is reduced compared to the expected value, we usually have to find the cause outside of the lung (e.g. trachea cancer).

What are the causes of restrictive lung diseases?

The causes can be splited into the two main categories

1. Extrinsic (they are influencing the chest wall movement)

* Obesity

* Scoliosis

* Respiratory muscle defects

* ...

2. Intrinsic (they are influencing the lung elasticity)

* Partial surgery lung removal

* Sarcoidosis

* Pulmonary fibrosis

* ...

II. Obstructive lung diseases
What is happening in a patient's respiratory system?

Bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed what caueses the airway obstruction. The result of the obstruction is a reduction of a quickly exhaled air.

How are the restrictive lung diseases demonstrated by the Spirometry assessment?
Obstructive lung diseases - Spirometry results
Parameter A comparison of a spirometry assessment and predicted values
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) FVC is normal or nearly normal (lightly decreased)
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) FEV1 is reduced below 80% of a predicted value
FEV1/FVC ratio (FEV1%) FEV1/FVC ratio is reduced on a value 0.7 or less (max value = 1)
Peak expiratory flow (PEF) PEF is reduced below 80% of a predicted value. The reduction is increasing with the disease substantiality (ASTHMA - low reduction, COPD - height reduction).
Forced expiratory flow (FEF) FEF25, FEF50 and FEF75 are reduced below 50% of a predicted value. The reduction is increasing with the disease substantiality.
Flow-Volume Loop shape Convex in a volume axis direction
What are the causes of restrictive lung diseases?

* Asthma

* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Note

COPD is one of the most common pulmonary obstructive diseases, mostly caused by smoking. There are two COPD forms - chronical bronchitis and aerification. Patients suffering from COPD usually have both of these forms.

III. Restrictive and Obstructive lung diseases combination

The restrictive and obstructive disease combination can be caused by two different diseases where the first one is restrictive and the second one is obstructive.

Another option is, if the disease causes both - restrictive as well as obstructive pulmonary defects. The example of this kind of disease is a cystic fibrosis.

III. Comparison between Spirometry Curves

Solution of the Problem 1.2 showed us, that our patien's FVC (FORCED VITAL CAPACITY) is decreased/reduced. As you probably remember, to find this fact, we had to go to the table and find FVC value manually. That was quite time consuming and it could be very annoying if we have to repeat it many times. To help the doctor and save his time a real spirometry result already contains these table/ideal values of a healthy human. These values are usually adduced in the brackets or in the next column. There also can be a healthy human's spirometry curve graph marked by a dashed line included in a patient's measured spirometry curve graph.

If we want to create this healthy human's spirometry curve, it is necessary to know a Forced Vital Capacity parameter. Hovewer, it is not enough. We also need to know parameters like Tidal Volume, Expiratory Reserve Volume, Inspiratory Reserve Volume and Residual Volume.

Tidal Volume (TD) - the volume of an air moved into or out of the lungs during quiet breathing (it is bordered by the red dashed-lines on the right graph).

The healthy adult's TV value should be 15 - 18 % of his Forced Vital Capacity.

Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) - the maximal volume of an air that can be exhaled from the end-expiratory position.

The healthy adult's ERV should be 25 % of his Forced Vital Capacity.

Inspiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) - the maximal volume of an air that can be inhaled from the end-inspiratory level.

The healthy adult's IRV should be 60 % of his Forced Vital Capacity.

Residual Volume (RV) - the volume of an air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation.

It is not possible to measure this volume directlly and we are not working deeper with it now.

Answers

PLEASE NOTE that the answers taken from the graph's data are only approximate! The difference between yours and our answers can be +-100ml.

Answer 1.1

Our patient's Forced Vital Capacity is approximately 2340ml.

If there is a big difference between yours and our answer, try to check the HELPER to this problem (bulb picture).

Answer 1.2

Yes, there is a difference.

Forced Vital Capacity of a healthy, 56 years old man who is 171cm tall should be 4.06l, but the patient's measured FVC is 2.34l.

Our patient's Forced Vital capacity is decreased.

Answer 1.3

There can be Restrictive lung disease expected but, to affirm this suspicion, it is necessary to know other parameters' values like Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or Peak expiratory flow (PEF).

(Missing parameters are discussed and can be discovered and understood in the next chapters.)

Answer 1.4

Our patient's Tidal Volume is approximately 0.5 liter.

Expiratory Reserve Volume is approximately 0.82 liter.

Inspiratory Reserve Volume is approximately 1.02 liter.

Note:There was a small change in an exhaled air at the end of the Spirometry - patient exhaled deeper. Mentioned change is caused by a forced exhalation in 9 - 11 second and we can neglect it in our counts.

Answer 1.5

Tidal volume of a healthy, 56 years old man, non-smoker who is 171 cm tall is lying in an interval <0.61 l ; 0.73 l> (15% - 18% of FVC of a healthy man, non-smoker, who has requested high and age).

Expiratory Reserve Volume of a healthy, 56 years old man, non-smoker who is 171 cm tall is 1.02 liter.

Inspiratory Reserve Volume of a healthy, 56 years old man, non-smoker who is 171 cm tall is 2.44 liter.

Our patient's measured values in comparison to the values of a healthy man, 56 years old, non-smoker, who is 171 cm tall.

56 YEARS OLD MAN, 171 cm FVC [l] TV [l] ERV [l] IRV [l]
MEASURED/PATIENT'S VALUES 2.34 0.5 0.82 1.02
IDEAL/TABLE VALUES 4.06 <0.6, 0.73> 1.02 2.44
Answer 1.6

something to think about: Is the y-location (location against the volume ax-axis) of a spirometry curve important? Is there any change on TV, IRV, ERV and FVC if we move it above/below?

Helpers

PLEASE NOTE that the answers taken from the graph's data are only approximate! The difference between yours and our answers can be +-100ml.

Helper 1.1

Firstly, it is necessary to understand the graph we are working with.

Try to answer following questions

1. Which Spirometry Curve parts are related to the patient's inhalations and which one to his exhalations?

To find an answer to this question, the imagine of a simple breathing can help. Try to close your eyes, inhale and exhale few times. Is the air volume in your lungs increasing or decreasing when you are inhaling air?

Check your answer HERE

2. When the patient's greatest exhalation started? (the exhalation during which patient exhaled the greatest volume of an air)

Note

If there are more than one of this type of exhalations, we are interested in the first one. The first one was executed on behalf of a doctor's appeal, after a forced inhalation.

Check your answer HERE

3. When the patient's greatest exhalation finished?

Check your answer HERE

I am sure, you can solve the problem 1.1 easily now. What is the volume of an air exhaled during the greatest exhalation?

Helper 1.2

Try to look to the Forced Vital Capacity predicted values' table (a link is available after problem 1.2 assignment).

What Forced Vital Capacity should have a healthy man, who is 56 years old and 171cm high?

As a height unit, INCH is used in a table. Inches are usually used in an anglophone districts, most common in the USA and the United Kingdom (1 inch = 2.54 cm).

Man's Forced Vital Capacity Predicted Values
AGE (years)
HEIGHT (inches) 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65
60 2.97 2.91 2.85 2.79 2.74 2.68 2.62 2.56
60.5 3.05 2.99 2.93 2.88 2.82 2.76 2.70 2.64
61 3.13 3.08 3.02 2.96 2.90 2.84 2.79 2.73
61.5 3.22 3.16 3.10 3.04 2.98 2.93 2.87 2.81
62 3.30 3.24 3.18 3.12 3.07 3.01 2.95 2.89
62.5 3.38 3.32 3.26 3.21 3.15 3.09 3.03 2.97
63 3.46 3.41 3.35 3.29 3.23 3.17 3.12 3.06
63.5 3.55 3.49 3.43 3.37 3.31 3.26 3.20 3.14
64 3.63 3.57 3.51 3.45 3.40 3.34 3.28 3.22
64.5 3.71 3.65 3.59 3.54 3.48 3.42 3.36 3.30
65 3.79 3.74 3.68 3.62 3.56 3.50 3.45 3.39
65.5 3.88 3.82 3.76 3.70 3.64 3.59 3.53 3.47
66 3.96 3.90 3.84 3.78 3.73 3.67 3.61 3.55
66.5 4.04 3.98 3.93 3.87 3.81 3.75 3.69 3.64
67 4.12 4.07 4.01 3.95 3.89 3.83 3.78 3.72
67.5 4.21 4.15 4.09 4.03 3.97 3.92 3.86 3.80
68 4.29 4.23 4.17 4.11 4.06 4.00 3.94 3.88
68.5 4.37 4.31 4.26 4.20 4.14 4.08 4.02 3.97
69 4.45 4.40 4.34 4.28 4.22 4.16 4.11 4.05
69.5 4.54 4.48 4.42 4.36 4.30 4.25 4.19 4.13
70 4.62 4.56 4.50 4.45 4.39 4.33 4.27 4.21
70.5 4.70 4.64 4.59 4.53 4.47 4.41 4.35 4.30
71 4.78 4.73 4.67 4.61 4.55 4.49 4.44 4.38
71.5 4.87 4.81 4.75 4.69 4.63 4.58 4.52 4.46
72 4.95 4.89 4.83 4.78 4.72 4.66 4.60 4.54
72.5 5.03 4.97 4.92 4.86 4.80 4.74 4.68 4.63
73 5.11 5.06 5.00 4.94 4.88 4.82 4.77 4.71
73.5 5.20 5.14 5.08 5.02 4.96 4.91 4.85 4.79
74 5.28 5.22 5.16 5.11 5.05 4.99 4.93 4.87
74.5 5.36 5.30 5.25 5.19 5.13 5.07 5.01 4.96
75 5.44 5.39 5.33 5.27 5.21 5.15 5.10 5.04
75.5 5.53 5.47 5.41 5.35 5.30 5.24 5.18 5.12
76 5.61 5.55 5.49 5.44 5.38 5.32 5.26 5.20
76.5 5.69 5.63 5.58 5.52 5.46 5.40 5.34 5.29
77 5.77 5.72 5.66 5.60 5.54 5.48 5.43 5.37
77.5 5.86 5.80 5.74 5.68 5.63 5.57 5.51 5.45
78 5.94 5.88 5.82 5.77 5.71 5.65 5.59 5.53
78.5 6.02 5.96 5.91 5.85 5.79 5.73 5.67 5.62
79 6.10 6.05 5.99 5.93 5.87 5.81 5.76 5.70
79.5 6.19 6.13 6.07 6.01 5.96 5.90 5.84 5.78
80 6.27 6.21 6.15 6.10 6.04 5.98 5.92 5.86
80.5 6.35 6.29 6.24 6.18 6.12 6.06 6.00 5.95
81 6.44 6.38 6.32 6.26 6.20 6.15 6.09 6.03
81.5 6.52 6.46 6.40 6.34 6.29 6.23 6.17 6.11
82 6.60 6.54 6.48 6.43 6.37 6.31 6.25 6.19
82.5 6.68 6.62 6.57 6.51 6.45 6.39 6.33 6.28
83 6.77 6.71 6.65 6.59 6.53 6.48 6.42 6.36
83.5 6.85 6.79 6.73 6.67 6.62 6.56 6.50 6.44
84 6.93 6.87 6.81 6.76 6.70 6.64 6.58 6.52
84.5 7.01 6.95 6.90 6.84 6.78 6.72 6.66 6.61
85 7.10 7.04 6.98 6.92 6.86 6.81 6.75 6.69
Helper 1.3

Try to look to the Pulmonary Diseases' table (a link is available after problem 1.3 assignment).

What kind of a disease is signalized by a reduced Forced Vital Capacity?

Helper 1.4

Try to go back to the text before the problem 1.4, read it carefully again and pay attention to the graph.

What exactly are describing concepts Tidal Volume, Expiratory Reserve Volume, Inspiratory Reserve Volume?

Which parts of our patient's Spirometry curve represent these volumes?

Helper 1.5

Try to go back to the text before the problem 1.4 and read it carefully once again.

What Vital capacity should have a healthy man who is 56 years old and 171 centimeters tall?

What percentage of a Vital Capacity should be reached in Tidal Volume for a healthy human?

What percentage of a Vital Capacity should be reached in Expiratory and Inspiratory Reserve Volume?

Helper 1.6

What Vital capacity should have a healthy man who is 56 years old and 171 centimeters tall?

What Tidal Volume, Expiratory Reserve Volume and Inspiratory Reserve Volume should he has?

Try to put these volumes to our patient's spirometry curve?

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